Dreaming Up Ways to Unclog City Arteries

The common image people have of problems with Melbourne’s transport system is peak-hour congestion. But only about 17per cent of trips to work are to the central business district, while journeys to work account for only 30per cent of all travel.

Most of the traffic in the Melbourne CBD (70 per cent on any one day) does not want to be there – it is through traffic. Although much time has been spent promoting the need for a ring route, by freeway or main roads, around the middle-to-outer suburbs of Melbourne, comparatively little traffic is cross-suburban.

About 80 per cent of traffic moves along corridors radiating from the city. Environment consciousness has mushroomed in the past five years but Melbourne’s transport system has become more polluting with exhaust fumes spewing everywhere. These fumes are harmful to the ozone layer. The number of single-car trips and the average distance travelled in cars has doubled. Traffic volume on arterial roads has increased at between one and 10per cent annually.

Over the same five years the percentages of people travelling as car passengers, on public transport, in taxis, on bicycles or on foot have all decreased. Cars, vans and motorcycles produce 64 per cent of the greenhouse gases produced by transport and transport produces a third of those gases. Statistics from a study by VicRoads, completed in February, show that the population in the inner and middle suburbs is declining, while it is booming in the outer and fringe suburbs – from Nunawading, Heidelberg, Sandringham, Sunshine and beyond.

Mr. David Berry, the director of metropolitan operations for VicRoads, says: “We have to consider whether we can afford that sort of growth.” VicRoads, public transport associations, environmental groups and university planning faculties agree that the outer suburbs are the least privileged suburbs of Melbourne in terms of private road travel and public transport, and deserve planning priority.

A ring route around Melbourne has been mooted by road planners for many years. Mr. Berry said that one leg of that route, connecting the Hume Highway to the Calder, Tullamarine and Hastings freeways, is already under way and is “probably the highest-priority project in Melbourne”. He said that other legs being considered were a route from Frankston to Ringwood that bypassed Dandenong and a freeway bypass of Footscray Road that served the docks. Plans for a tunnel joining the South-Eastern and West Gate freeways under the Botanic Gardens and St Kilda Road have still not been buried, Mr. Berry said.

The secretary of the Public Transport Users Association, Mr. Paul Mees, said: “Except for freight there is no demand for a ring road. There is a considerable amount of short distance cross-suburban traffic for which a ring road or freeway would not be useful.” He argues that because travel still occurs along radial lines in Melbourne, the railways already in place have to be better serviced. VicRoads’ policy is to supply 1200 more car parking spaces at railway stations this year and 1600 spaces next year. Bicycle lockers are also part of their policy. Mr. Mees advocates that the rail service be improved by providing: Regular bus services to railway stations. Railway stations closer to the main suburban destinations such as Southland. More regular and reliable rail services.

Public transport that runs later into the night and serves urban nightspots such as Brunswick Street, Toorak Road, Fitzroy Street and Chapel Street more effectively. Railway-line extensions into the housing corridors. VicRoads has begun to emphasize the role of the owners of destinations, such as shopping-centers corporations, in providing more transport on demand. Smaller 10 and 12-seater minibuses to serve businesses, shopping centers and airports, more like the buses in Asia, were possible innovations. Information about the daily travel paths of employees and clients to large suburban businesses might be gathered to help the Public Transport Commission improve the services along those routes.

In Canberra, the recommendations of two Murdoch University academics have resulted in the cancellation of two urban freeways and the expansion of light-rail networks. One of the academics, Professor Peter Newman, has been employed by the Victorian Government to assess the development of uses of the Eastern Freeway. One of the tenets of his plan for Australia’s capital city is to foster the development of urban villages or suburban business centers. This raises the issue of how much the business district should be decentralized.

The move of Coles-Myer’s head office from the city to Tooronga, and away from any of the main public transport routes, has fueled the debate. Mr. Mees says governments should not allow corporations to resettle away from the main public transport routes or radial railway lines. Employment levels in the CBD are dropping and if public transport or public parking does not become more attractive, they may continue to fall. VicRoads is trying to encourage less long-term car parking spaces in the city but more short-term spaces.

In North Sydney, the local council recently shifted from minimum limits on the number of parking spaces that new building developments must provide to a maximum level in a bid to discourage commuter car travel. Much greater use of the rail loop and the idea of tram loops circulating the CBD have been mooted. One-way routes around the central pedestrian precinct may become necessary as the foot-walks expand, Mr. Berry said.

VicRoads and the Melbourne City Council are considering extending the pedestrian precinct to encompass an oblong block between La Trobe, Flinders, Elizabeth and Russell streets. Several groups agree that freight delivery to the city and to suburban shopping districts should be done after hours and should be diverted around better-managed alternative suburban routes.

Private Plan for Road and Tunnel Freeway Link

A private consortium wants to build a ring road linking the Tullamarine and West Gate freeways with the South-Eastern Arterial Road via a tunnel under the Domain. Details of the $600-$800 million proposal have been lodged with the Treasurer, Mr. Roper, under the Government’s new guidelines for private-sector funding of public infrastructure projects.

The proposal has three sections: building a western bypass between the Tullamarine Freeway and Footscray Road, improving the section of Footscray Road linking the bypass with the Freeway and building a tunnel under the Domain and Yarra River to link the GenF20 Freeway with the South-Eastern Arterial Road. In all it amounts to nine kilometers of new road.

The Domain tunnel would start in Grant Street and surface on the South-Eastern Arterial Road between Punt Road and Cremorne Street. The proposal has been put together by three companies involved in the financing and construction of the 2.3 kilometer Sydney Harbor tunnel. They are the Infrastructure Development Corporation, Transfield and Acer Wargon Chapman.

At $750 million, Sydney Harbor tunnel is Australia’s largest privately funded public works project. A director of Acer Wargon Chapman, Mr. Alan Hale, said yesterday that the road sections could be built concurrently, providing up to 2000 jobs, and would involve minimal disruption to traffic flows. He said it would not interrupt normal activity on the Domain or nearby sporting venues. He said the project would be fully privately funded and an electronic toll system or fuel levy would be needed to help recover costs. “I am absolutely convinced that this project is feasible and could be privately funded,” Mr. Hale said. “While the tunnel had not been on the Government’s priority list in the past, the western bypass has, and I believe the situation has changed with the Swanston Walk proposal and the need to divert city traffic. “We would be very surprised, given that it is a privately funded proposal, if they would not go to the next step under the infrastructure guidelines. I’m sure there will be interest from other consortiums.”

A spokesman for Mr. Roper confirmed yesterday that the proposal had been received, but said it was too early to comment on its merit. “Even the simple issue of building a Domain tunnel would need considerable discussion,” he said. The Melbourne City Council’s chief executive officer, Ms. Elizabeth Proust, said last night that the council had no formal policy on a tunnel, although it had been discussed with various city groups during the Swanston Walk planning process. “Without trying to second guess the council’s attitude, I think we would see it as a necessary longer-term traffic measure. We would be supportive provided the plans included no more bridges over the Yarra. The exhaust vents in the Domain parkland would also concern us,” she said.

A second group has also announced plans to put together a tunnel-highway proposal. The engineering consultancy Kinhill is investigating six possible routes between the West Gate Freeway and the South-Eastern Arterial Road. Kinhill’s executive director is Mr. Kingsley Culley, a former general manager of the Board of Works.

PhenQ Can Help You Maintain a Constant Weight

Obesity research began to change when investigators came to appreciate the significance of an observation that has been made by scores of scientists over a period of decades: most animals maintain a constant weight. How do they do it? And if maintaining a stable weight is so natural, why do so many people have such difficulty with it?

Even people whose weights are normal frequently must struggle to keep from gaining. This is reflected, notes Judith Rodin, a psychologist at Yale University, in surveys of healthy people of normal weight–women, in particular–in which respondents reveal that they constantly fear getting fat and are always on diets.

Eating disorders are pervasive. Bulimia, in which people gorge themselves with enormous quantities of food and then purge themselves by vomiting or taking laxatives, “is strictly a Western phenomenon,” says Rodin. It is a direct result, she believes, of the pressures that women in particular feel to be slim–pressures that may not let up from youth to old age.

It’s much better to take a natural appetite suppressant like PhenQ. This weight loss supplement reduces appetite naturally. There are no bad side effects associated with PhenQ and it’s safe to use every day. It’s certainly preferable to use a natural product like PhenQ than it is to continually purge yourself of food.

Susan Wooley, a University of Cincinnati psychologist, remarks that bulimia is becoming epidemic among young women because “it is one way to avoid becoming fat. As the standard of thinness has shrunk, more and more women are uncomfortable with their natural body size and diet until they get so hungry they lose control of their eating.”

She conducted a survey of 33,000 women for Glamour and found that about 20 percent of the respondents who were below age 20 reported that they had made themselves vomit to keep from gaining weight. And when Rodin surveyed 200 women ages 62 to 91, their second most widely stated problem after concern about memory loss was worry about gaining weight.

Volume Pills Can Influence Sexual Behavior

A new national study of American sexual behavior claims Americans, especially the better educated, are having more sex despite the threat of AIDS, considered by many to be a disease of gays and the poor.

“The Janus Report of Sexual Behavior,” by the husband-and-wife research team of Samuel and Cynthia Janus, says the AIDS panic that spread across the nation has receded and that a new “sexual revolution” is underway with both men and women reporting increased sexual activity well into old age.

Publishers John Wiley & Sons said the book was the first full-scale national scientific study of American sexual behavior since the 1948 and 1953 Kinsey reports and quotes Dr. William Masters of the Masters and Johnson Institute as saying it “brings us into the 21st century”.

It is based on a nine-year study of more than 7,000 people from 18 to 80 and beyond, across a wide spectrum of incomes, educational levels and political and religious beliefs.

Basically, the book shows that old rules governing sex no longer apply and many Americans now ad lib moral and lifestyle decisions or make them in the context of the morality of their own small peer groups.

The Janus Report is a study of heterosexuals and does not explore the behavior of homosexuals, although it reports 22 percent of men and 17 percent of women surveyed reported having at least one homosexual experience.

Nor does it attempt to find out how widespread is the use of condoms beyond reporting that 64 percent of Catholics, 62 percent of Protestants, and 68 percent of Jews said they used contraceptives.

The Januses found residents of the Northeast and West are pacesetters in seeking more bounteous sex, with Midwesterns being the least sexually active.

Sex in the South, “in many ways reflects the serious contradictions of the evangelists who were caught practicing the opposite of what they preach,” they noted. The South has the earliest ages of sexual initiation and the most reported premarital sex.

Part of the sexual revolution is the increasing acceptance of sadomasochistic sex, the authors said, adding that their study showed that people who identify themselves as “ultraconservatives” are three times more accepting of sadomasochism in sex than either “ultraliberals” or “independents.”

Many respondents have purchased sex enhancement products, including vibrators, male enhancement pills, and even Volume Pills, a natural product that increases semen production in men. Volume Pills basically allows them to ejaculate considerably more semen than normal.

Melbourne Doesn’t Want to Become Los Angeles

In the southern Californian city of San Diego, a new grass-roots organization calling itself Prevent Los Angelization Now! is trying to stop what it sees as the city’s slide into urban hell. In a state where city populations are spiraling, it is the most extreme manifestation of a phenomenon known as Los Angeles-bashing.

In the 1960s, Los Angeles was the envy of the US and much of the Western world for its dynamism and vast network of freeways. Today, many civic leaders take one look at its choking traffic and noxious smog and turn away in horror. Los Angeles has had to introduce some of the toughest air-pollution laws in the US and to rethink its attitude towards public transport.

Associate Professor Peter Newman of Murdoch University’s Institute for Science and Technology Policy believes there are powerful environmental, economic and social reasons for having public transport. He said Melbourne, like Los Angeles, would drown in its own traffic unless the tough decisions were made to curb car use and increase public transport patronage. “We need to give public transportation a boost. All Australian cities are now debating freeways and public transport issues,” he said. “The outcome of this debate will determine what kind of city each becomes in the future.”

Advocates of public transport usually cite Toronto as an example of a city that turned its back on freeways 20 years ago and revitalized public transport. The Public Transport Users Association, for example, in a recent report entitled `Greening Melbourne with Public Transport’, noted that Toronto, a city of similar size, has less than a third of the number of tram and train lines, yet its public transport patronage is more than double that of Melbourne.

Professor Bill Russell, executive director of Monash University’s Graduate School of Management, said one need look no further than Sydney to see a city in the throes of deciding its direction. “The point that I make is that Sydney and Melbourne were the only two Australian cities which back in the 1950s had extensive electric suburban rail systems,” he said. “Sydney has built on that base in the past two decades to the stage where it’s almost comparable with Toronto. In Melbourne, 7.1 per cent of passenger kilometers are on public transport. In Sydney it’s 13.8 per cent, while Toronto is 16.7 per cent.

“In Melbourne we’ve pumped money into roads. There has been no significant extension of the suburban rail line since the A line in 1929. In Sydney they’ve built the eastern-suburbs railway out to Kings Cross and Bondi Junction and have extended their other lines in each direction.” The Building Owners and Managers Association believes that Melbourne’s public transport system does not yet provide a realistic alternative to city workers who travel in by car. The association considers insufficient services, inadequate infrastructure and outdated technology to be critical deficiencies.

Professor Russell cites the debate on Swanston Street as not only symbolic of the debate about transport options, but as central to the discussion on what kind of a city Melbourne will become. “It’s not just Swanston Street, it’s the whole of middle Melbourne being made uninhabitable because it has been cut up by these canyons of cars,” he said. A recent conference in Melbourne on the greenhouse effect resulted in a declaration urging Australians to do twice as much walking and cycling, cut car use by 10 per cent and re-plan cities to be less dependent on fossil fuels for transport.

The Melbourne City Council has set in motion its plan to do just this. Its revised strategy plan, `Issues for the ’90s’, echoed the view that excessive car use is one of the most intractable problems confronting the city. But the council’s call for a “shared vision” for the city, based on curbing cars and building a European-style network of pedestrian malls, has proved elusive. Business groups and retail traders are among those opposed to the plan. They may have more say in the newly elected council after last Saturday’s municipal poll.

A property consultant, Mr. Alan Williams, who has the support of the Retail Traders Association, the Building Owners and Managers Association and the Melbourne City Chamber of Commerce, believes the council’s plan will throw Swanston Street into chaos. His proposal is for Swanston Street to remain open to south-bound traffic only, with the western side of the street reserved for pedestrians. In Elizabeth Street, the western side would be reserved for north-bound traffic, with the eastern side kept clear for pedestrians. He urges that work start immediately on the Western bypass and the Domain tunnel to reduce the estimated 28,000 cars using Swanston Street each day. He also believes trams should be removed from the Bourke Street Mall and an all-weather cover built.

The executive director of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects, Mr. Peter Clarke, also favors part closure of Swanston Street. “A loop system of trams running along La Trobe, Spencer, Flinders and Spring streets, retaining our W-class trams, with parking around the edge of the city, would work well,” he said. “There is certainly a need for a large car park in the Jolimont area.”

The former head of the Urban Land Authority and now a consultant to the State Government, Mr. John Lawson, said Melbourne’s rail system needed to be cleaner and safer before increased patronage could be expected. One idea, he said, was to have a shop or some other safe haven for people on every second or third rail station. He said minor changes in tram routes in the city were needed to keep trams flowing in and around the central city. He said the State Government should consider making public transport free in the CBD. “I also favor the retention of Melbourne’s W-class trams because they are a tourist attraction,” Mr. Lawson said. “One of the most exciting things you can do in New Orleans is travel around on a Melbourne tram.”

Mr. Clarke believes more attention should be paid to improving the visual and physical characteristics of the city. “Issues to do with streetscape and urban design concern us,” he said. “We need to pay more attention to retail frontages at street level, not just in Swanston Street, which is somewhat tacky, but in all streets.” The city council is responding to calls to make the city more attractive by beautifying small streets and laneways. It also intends to replace the ash trees in Collins Street between Swanston and Collins streets with plane trees, which cope better with life among the concrete and car fumes.

But many still believe Melbourne lacks a central focus. The long-running saga of the City Square is often seen as symptomatic of the city’s malaise. Perhaps bold suggestions rather than incremental or cosmetic changes in the city fabric are needed. One of the boldest came from Mr. Myles Whelan, the chairman of Whelan the Wrecker, a company involved in demolishing many of this city’s older buildings. Melbourne, he said, needed a living, breathing heart, where people could gather for all kinds of activity. “A small city square is no good,” he said. “We need a garden square in the middle of the city. I would demolish all buildings in the square bounded by Lonsdale, Swanston, Bourke and Elizabeth streets with the exception of the GPO and Myer’s Lonsdale Street store to create a living green heart for Melbourne.”

Mr. Lawson believes the city has a great framework, but lacks a sense of pride. “We need to raise the level of excitement about Melbourne,” he said. “We are too conservative; we lack an adventurous spirit.”

North-South Gulf Will Widen, Says Report

Plans for a united Europe in 1992 and the arrival of the Channel tunnel in 1993 will drive a deeper wedge between England’s affluent South-east and the rest of the country. But as the South-east triangle prospers, the quality of life for people living in London and the Home Counties will steadily worsen.

Overcrowding, the shortage of houses, congestion on the roads and the problems of commuting by train have already led 41 per cent of people in the South-east to say they would like to escape from the expense, the stress and the high crime rate, Mintel, a market research company says.

It has conducted a comprehensive survey of life in Britain today and says people living in London and its surrounds are caught in the “affluence trap”; although they enjoy high wages, cars and other material comforts, they yearn for the tranquility of the Yorkshire Dales and Devon countryside.

Mr Frank Fletcher, Mintel’s research director, said that as matters stood, there was no prospect of the great divide between the South-east triangle and the rest of the country narrowing. If anything, the wedge would widen.

“The South-east is already out of step with the rest of the country in both social and economic terms. Northerners eat fish and chips, cakes and soups, while southerners eat a cosmopolitan mixture of food.

“Northerners don’t like rapid changes in clothes fashions, while southerners do, to enable them to express themselves. Northerners go to pubs and drink beer, while southerners go to restaurants and drink gin and tonic. And all these things happen because of the socio-economic pressures.

“Southerners are involved in the affluence trap. They are materialistic and competitive in a way that northerners are not. Southerners are trying to keep up with the Joneses and greater competition means greater stress”, Mr Fletcher said.

“Southerners are better off, but the quality of life leaves a lot to be desired. What turns on the yuppies and high-flyers of the South-east would put off the more conservative northerners.”

Mr Fletcher defined “the South” as the triangle from Poole, Dorset, to Peterborough, taking in all of London and the south-east coastal areas.

Mintel’s report says much of the blame for the divide must rest on the Government’s shoulders and problems could worsen when new policies, now imminent, diversify the provision of education from one part of the country to another.

“Although many encouraging signs of industrial regeneration were noted in parts of the North and there is no reason to suggest that the pockets of prosperity will not continue to flourish the tilt of economic prosperity and political power to the South-east will continue”, the report says.

New media developments will also enhance regional and local diversity, particularly the decentralized printing of national newspapers and the predicted onslaught of cable television.

The report says even regional accents are becoming more pronounced as local radio and television stations exert their influence. Their resurgence has been a marked cultural phenomenon since the Second World War. The tendency before then was towards standard southern English, in theory if not always in regional practice, and the BBC was a strong force in that direction.

However, starting with Wilfred Pickles reading the news during the war in a modified Yorkshire accent, the BBC has increasingly given rein to regional variations of standard English, the report says. Commercial television, too, has promoted regional accents.

On the quality of life in Britain, Mintel says that commuting renders virtually every other residential area in the country preferable to Greater London.

“The attractions of the metropolis may outweigh this particular factor but the horrors of the Northern Line on the Underground or the south-east section of British Rail are unparalleled in any other part of the country.”

Road traffic management is better in the North than in the South, and certainly better than in London. And although London is the prime tourist attraction for overseas visitors, the main natural attractions are in the north and west of England.

In a region-by-region examination of consumer attitudes, 48 per cent of those questioned by Mintel in London said they were financially better off than they were a year ago, compared with the national average of 41 per cent. Fifty per cent of northerners said they were worse off.

However, using its own research and that of both official and private organizations, Mintel produced a list of what people regarded as the most important dimensions affecting their quality of life. Crime, violent or not, came top of the list, with health provision next; then pollution, the cost of living, shopping facilities, racial harmony, cost of housing, scenic quality and educational facilities.

Mintel then added the factors of employment prospects, wage levels, climate, sports facilities, commuting time, leisure facilities, quality of council housing, access to council housing and the cost of rents to find Britain’s top-ranked cities.

Edinburgh headed the league, with Aberdeen second and Plymouth third. London was ranked thirty-fourth, just above Wolverhampton, Coventry, Walsall and Birmingham.

London had the highest proportion of people who wished to move to another part of the country if possible (41 per cent). In contrast, only 15 per cent of people questioned in the South-west felt the same way.
People living in Scotland, Wales and the west of England were most worried about the prospect of unemployment (41 per cent). Londoners were the least worried (71 per cent were unconcerned).

A significant increase in car ownership is shown in the report. In Greater London, 42.4 per cent of all households own one car, while 12.5 per cent own two cars and 2.3 per cent three or more. In East Anglia, 52.7 per cent of households own one car and 17.8 per cent two. In the South-west, 48.1 per cent own one car and 19.6 per cent own two. The lowest density of two-car families is the North (7.9 per cent).

Color television sets are owned by 85 per cent of households in the UK, while 28 per cent own videos. Television is the universal indoor leisure pursuit all over the UK.

On average, 89 per cent of people said their top audio-visual pleasure was watching television, followed by listening to the radio (50 per cent), playing records and tapes (37 per cent), watching videoed television (29 per cent), watching video cassettes (19 per cent), listening to radio or cassettes in the car (20 per cent) and using a home computer (6 per cent).

Other leisure pursuits show sharp regional differences. Cricket is hardly played in Scotland and tends to be more popular in the South than in the North, “although it continues to have quasi-religious status in Yorkshire”.

Rugby League is the game of Lancashire and Yorkshire, while Rugby Union is played in the South. Bowls is played on a crown green in the North and on a flat surface in the South. Lacrosse is a peculiarity of Lancashire and Cheshire.

The report says Scots have a higher propensity for outdoor activities than the English or Welsh, but adds that Scots are closer to suitable countryside.

That is particularly true of golf. It is a game more generally played in Scotland, which is its home, “and does not have the middle-class connotations there that it has south of the border”.

As for evening entertainment, visiting a public house or club is the favorite pastime in all regions. On average, 37 per cent of adults in Britain spend more than an hour a week in public houses or clubs. The next most popular evening activities are entertaining at home; eating out; going to dances or discotheques; visiting a wine or cocktail bar; and going to the cinema, theatre, concert, ballet or opera.